A parathyroidectomy is a surgery to remove parathyroid glands. There are four parathyroid glands located in the neck. The glands make a hormone that balance the level of calcium in the blood.

Parathyroid Glands and Thyroid Glands (Back View)
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The surgery is done to remove one or more abnormal parathyroid glands. The glands may be abnormal due to cancer or for other reasons.