Kidney stones are crystallized material in the urine. These stones form in the kidneys or other parts of the urinary tract. Kidney stones may be made up of a variety of minerals in the blood. The most common are calcium, oxalate or phosphate. Others stones may contain uric acid, struvite, and/or cystine.

Kidney Stone
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Some of the known causes of kidney stones in children include:

  • Too much oxalate in the urine
  • Too much calcium in the urine or blood
  • Too much uric acid in the urine
  • Tiny bacteria a stone can form around
  • Inherited abnormality in the way the body handles cystine
  • Foreign bodies in the urinary tract, like stents or catheters
  • Abnormal function of the urinary tract, such as neurogenic bladder