Dandy-Walker syndrome is a brain deformity that develops before birth. The deformity occurs in an area in the back of the brain. This area controls movement and cognitive learning. This syndrome can also affect fluid-filled chambers of the brain called ventricles. The ventricles may have an abnormal build-up of fluid.

Cerebellum
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It is not clear what causes Dandy-Walker syndrome. There may be a genetic factor.