Vascular dementia is a type of dementia. It is caused by disease of the small blood vessels in the brain. Parts of the brain called white matter along with grey matter are injured by multiple smallstrokes.

Healthy and Injured Brain Blood Vessels
Blood Flow and Lack of Blood Flow to the Brain
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Vascular dementia occurs when cells below the surface of the brain's cortex die because they do not receive enough oxygen and nutrients. This process is due to hardening and narrowing of the blood vessels within the white matter of the brain. This affects the blood supply.