Meningococcal Vaccine: What Is Meningococcal Disease?
Meningococcal disease is caused by an infection that affects the meninges. The meninges is the protective membrane that surrounds the brain and spinal cord. A bacterial infection of the meninges, called bacterial meningitis, can cause death within hours. This bacteria can also cause infections in the blood.
The disease is most common in:
- Infants aged less than one year
- People aged 16-21 years old
- People with certain medical conditions
- Community settings where large groups of people gather, such as college dorms or military bases
About 1,200 people in the US develop the disease each year. Approximately 10%-15% of these people die. Another 11%-19% lose their arms or legs, become deaf, have nervous system problems, or suffer seizures or strokes.
Symptoms of meningitis include:
- High fever
- Very stiff, sore neck
- Sensitivity to bright lights
- Mental confusion
Symptoms in newborn and infants can be hard to notice. These may include:
- Unexplained high fever or low body temperature
- Feeding poorly or refusing to eat
- Tautness or bulging of soft spots between skull bones
- Difficulty waking
Treatment may include:
- Fluid replacement
There are two meningococcal vaccines available in the US:
- Meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MCV4)—given as a shot into the muscle, preferred for people age 55 years or younger
- Meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine (MPSV4)—given as a shot under the skin, preferred for adults age 56 years or older
Both vaccines are made from parts of the meningococcal bacteria. They do not contain live bacteria.
Last reviewedDecember 2013by David L Horn, MD, FACP
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.