Tracheotomy is the surgical creation of an opening from the outside of the neck into the windpipe. A tube is inserted into the opening to allow for normal breathing.
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A tracheotomy is done to bypass obstructions that are interfering with breathing. The opening is called a stoma or tracheostomy. A stoma may be either temporary or permanent.
A tracheotomy is done to restore normal breathing in the following situations:
The airway is obstructed at or above the level of the larynx, which is also known as the voice box, due to:
- Trauma to the neck area
- Obstructing tumors in the upper airway
- Vocal cord paralysis
- Removal of larynx for throat cancer
Respiratory failure requiring long-term mechanical breathing assistance, as in these cases:
- Spinal cord injury in the neck area
- Severe lung infection or inflammation
- If you have been on a ventilator for 21 days
- Injury to the respiratory tract due to breathing in smoke or steam or inhaling corrosive substances
- Birth defects of the trachea or larynx
- Foreign object blocking the trachea or larynx
- Severe sleep apnea
Last reviewedSeptember 2013by Michael Woods, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.